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After HIV enters a T-cell, three enzymes play essential roles in the life cycle of the virus. Reverse transcriptase copies the viral RNA genome and makes a DNA copy. Integrase inserts this viral DNA into the cell’s DNA. In the last steps of the viral life cycle, HIV protease cuts HIV proteins into their functional parts. Current antiretroviral drugs target these three enzymes, hindering the virus reproduction. However, enzymes can mutate and become drug resistant, making it vital to use a combination of different drugs that target multiple enzymes. This animation was created using many PDB entries for Reverse Transcriptase (3hvt, 3dlk, 3v6d, 3v4i, 3klg, 3v81), Integrase (3os1, 3os0, 3oya), Protease (3pj6, 1kj4, 1hxb, 2az9, 2azc), HIV Polyprotein (1l6n), Capsid Protein (2m8l), and Matrix Protein (1tam).
Designed DNA crystal: Small pieces of DNA have been engineered to form a nanoscale lattice.
Tour the molecular anatomy of the Ebola virus with the RCSB PDB. Understanding of the shape and structure of the proteins that make up Ebola is a key component in the fight against the virus. Learn more at Molecule of the Month.
Use the RCSB PDB Resources to Learn about HIV
Hemoglobin uses a change in shape to increase the efficiency of oxygen transport.
Make your first molecular movie
This seminar was presented by Stephen K. Burley, MD, DPhil, and Shuchismita Dutta, PhD on December 5th 2014 as part of the World AIDS Day Symposium at the Rutgers Center for Integrative Proteomics Research in Piscataway, NJ.
Atomic structures of the ribosomal subunits reveal a central role for RNA in protein synthesis. Ribosomes are complex molecular machines that build proteins.
Two linked molecular motors are used to pump protons across membranes.
Winning videos in the 2014 Video Challenge for High School Students "Structural Biology of HIV"
Winning videos in the 2015 Video Challenge for High School Students "Detecting and Combatting HIV in 3D"
Winning videos in the 2016 Video Challange for High School Students "Structural Biology & Diabetes"
Learn the basics of molecular visualization with UCSF Chimera
Proteins play countless roles throughout the biological world, from catalyzing chemical reactions to building the structures of all living things. Despite this wide range of functions all proteins are made out of the same twenty amino acids, but combined in different ways. The way these twenty amino acids are arranged dictates the folding of the protein into its primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Since protein function is based on the ability to recognize and bind to specific molecules, having the correct shape is critical for proteins to do their jobs correctly. Learn more about the relationship between protein structure and function in this video.
PDB-101 helps teachers, students, and the general public explore the 3D world of proteins and nucleic acids. Learning about their diverse shapes and functions helps to understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease to biological energy.
Why PDB-101? Researchers around the globe make these 3D structures freely available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive. PDB-101 builds introductory materials to help beginners get started in the subject ("101", as in an entry level course) as well as resources for extended learning.
RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB):