Proteins play countless roles throughout the biological world, from catalyzing chemical reactions to building the structures of all living things. Despite this wide range of functions all proteins are made out of the same twenty amino acids, but combined in different ways. The way these twenty amino acids are arranged dictates the folding of the protein into its primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Since protein function is based on the ability to recognize and bind to specific molecules, having the correct shape is critical for proteins to do their jobs correctly. Learn more about the relationship between protein structure and function in this video.
The billions of neurons in our nervous system are constantly communicating. The signals they send to each other are responsible for our thoughts, sensations, and actions. Learn how ions, ion channels, receptors, and neurotransmitters work together to enable the neuronal signaling process.
Pain is one of the most trying experiences of life. On the cellular level it is communicated via special neuronal pathways. On the molecular level, however, pain is communicated like any other sensation, via a set of electrical and chemical signals facilitated by complex molecular machinery. These signals can be modulated by opioids, causing us to feel less pain, or no pain at all. Learn how opioids activate the G-proteins which in turn interact with other proteins to edit the pain signal.
In 1971, the structural biology community established the single worldwide archive for macromolecular structure data–the Protein Data Bank (PDB). From its inception, the PDB has embraced a culture of open access, leading to its widespread use by the research community. PDB data are used by hundreds of data resources and millions of users exploring fundamental biology, energy, and biomedicine.
This video looks at the history and the milestones that shaped the PDB into the leading resource for research and education it is today.
Since its discovery in 1928, penicillin and penicillin-related antibiotics helped save countless lives from bacterial infections. However, in the face of overuse and misuse of antibiotics, bacteria evolved resistance mechanisms that allow them to proliferate even in the presence of the newest antibiotics.
Tour the molecular anatomy of the Ebola virus with the RCSB PDB. Understanding of the shape and structure of the proteins that make up Ebola is a key component in the fight against the virus. Learn more at Molecule of the Month.
After HIV enters a T-cell, three enzymes play essential roles in the life cycle of the virus. Reverse transcriptase copies the viral RNA genome and makes a DNA copy. Integrase inserts this viral DNA into the cell’s DNA. In the last steps of the viral life cycle, HIV protease cuts HIV proteins into their functional parts.
Current antiretroviral drugs target these three enzymes, hindering the virus reproduction. However, enzymes can mutate and become drug resistant, making it vital to use a combination of different drugs that target multiple enzymes.
This animation was created using many PDB entries for Reverse Transcriptase (3hvt, 3dlk, 3v6d, 3v4i, 3klg, 3v81), Integrase (3os1, 3os0, 3oya), Protease (3pj6, 1kj4, 1hxb, 2az9, 2azc), HIV Polyprotein (1l6n), Capsid Protein (2m8l), and Matrix Protein (1tam).
This seminar was presented by Stephen K. Burley, MD, DPhil, and Shuchismita Dutta, PhD on December 5th 2014 as part of the World AIDS Day Symposium at the Rutgers Center for Integrative Proteomics Research in Piscataway, NJ.
Structures of photoactive yellow protein were determined by serial femtosecond crystallography after illumination, capturing the isomerization of the chromophore after it absorbs light. Structures included in this movie include: 5hd3 (ground state), 5hdc (100-400 femtoseconds after illumination), 5hdd (800-1200 femtoseconds), 5hds (3 picoseconds), 4b9o (100 picoseconds), 5hd5 (200 nanoseconds) and 1ts0 (1 millisecond). For more, see the Molecule of the Month on Photoactive Yellow Protein and Guide to Understanding PDB Data: Methods for Determining Atomic Structures
For the fifth year, RCSB PDB invited high school students to tell molecular stories in video. This year's challenge focused on the molecular mechanisms behind bacterial resistance to Beta-lactam antibiotics
PDB-101 helps teachers, students, and the general public explore the 3D world of proteins and nucleic acids. Learning about their diverse shapes and functions helps to understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease to biological energy.
Why PDB-101? Researchers around the globe make these 3D structures freely available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive. PDB-101 builds introductory materials to help beginners get started in the subject ("101", as in an entry level course) as well as resources for extended learning.