Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

HIV-Infected Cell, 2022

Acknowledgement: Illustration by David S. Goodsell, B-HIVE Center, RCSB Protein Data Bank and Scripps Research. doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-047

Integrative illustration of an HIV-infected cell. The cell nucleus is at the top, with DNA in purple and nuclear membrane in green. The HIV genomic DNA (thin white strand at upper right) is integrated into the cell’s genome and is being transcribed into RNA (yellow) by RNA polymerases. The RNA is then transported through the nuclear pore to the cytoplasm. Some of the RNA is translated by cytoplasmic ribosomes to build gag and gag-pol proteins (red) and by ribosomes bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (green compartments in the cytoplasm) to build envelope glycoproteins (magenta). Other copies of the genomic RNA dimerize and are packaged into virions. Finally, gag and gag-pol associate with the cell membrane, capture the dimers of genomic RNA, and bud from the surface of the cell to form new virions. Inside these virions, the proteins mature, forming the distinctive cone-shaped capsid that will deliver the genomic RNA when the virus infects a new cell. The long yellow line at the bottom represents an extended genomic RNA.

This illustration was created as part of outreach activities at the B-HIVE Center. It is based largely on previous illustrations of eukaryotic cells and HIV life cycle, presented in two publications:
Goodsell, DS (2011) Eukaryotic Cell Panorama. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 39, 91-101
Goodsell, DS (2015) Illustrations of the HIV Life Cycle. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 389, 243-252