Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses, 2018

Acknowledgement: Illustration by David S. Goodsell. doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-016

An excitatory synapse is shown on the left, with one synaptic vesicle releasing the neurotransmitter glutamate into the synapse, and an inhibitory synapse is shown on the right, with synaptic vesicles full of GABA. These illustrations were created for the exhibition “Brain – wider than the sky” at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, Portugal.

Key for "Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses"

  1. Transporters pump glutamate or GABA into vesicles.
  2. Synapsin holds vesicles in storage.
  3. Scaffolding proteins guide vesicles to the surface.
  4. CaMKII (Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) regulates the action of many proteins.
  5. SNARE proteins will fuse vesicles with the membrane.
  6. SNARE complexes have docked the vesicle in the inhibitory painting, and fused the vesicle with the membrane in the excitatory painting.
  7. NSF protein separates the SNARE proteins after fusion.
  8. Voltage-dependent calcium channels trigger release of neurotransmitters.
  9. Neurexin and Neuroligin connect the two cells across the synapse.
  10. a. AMPAR (glutamate receptor), b. NMDAR (glutamate receptor), and c. GABA receptors bind to neurotransmitters and allow ions to enter the receiving cell.
  11. Postsynaptic density proteins form a scaffold to support the receiving cell.
  12. Actin filaments are part of the cytoskeleton.