Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

CytoSkeleton, 2021

Acknowledgement: Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank. doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-036

This painting is a conceptual image of the cytoplasm of a human cell. Three types of cytoskeletal filaments are shown: (A) actin, (B) intermediate filament, and (C) microtubule. The end of one actin filament is being extended with the help of (D) formin, and other filaments have (E) capping protein at their ends. Junctions linking actin filaments are formed by (F) Arp2/3, and actin and the intermediate filament are linked by (G) plectin. The soluble biomolecules filling the spaces around the cytoskeletal filaments include the 100 most abundant proteins from a quantitative proteomics study (reference 8 below). Several features represent substantial changes from previous paintings: (H) ribosome structures include long RNA expansion segments and intrinsically-disordered stalk proteins that recruit tRNA and elongation factors, and (I) nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated into a large multi-tRNA-synthetase complex.

Selected References
1. Chakraborty, S., Jasnin, M., and Baumeister, W. (2020) Three‐dimensional organization of the cytoskeleton: A cryo‐electron tomography perspective. Protein Sci. 29, 1302–1320
2. Pollard, T. D. (2016) Actin and actin-binding proteins. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 8, a018226
3. Merino, F., Pospich, S., and Raunser, S. (2020) Towards a structural understanding of the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 102, 51–64
4. Parry, D. A. D., Strelkov, S. V., Burkhard, P., Aebi, U., and Herrmann, H. (2007) Towards a molecular description of intermediate filament structure and assembly. Exp. Cell Res. 313, 2204–2216
5. Eldirany, S. A., Lomakin, I. B., Ho, M., and Bunick, C. G. (2021) Recent insight into intermediate filament structure. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 68, 132–143
6. Janke, C., and Magiera, M. M. (2020) The tubulin code and its role in controlling microtubule properties and functions. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 21, 307–326
7. Janda, L., Damborský, J., Rezniczek, G. A., and Wiche, G. (2001) Plectin repeats and modules: strategic cysteines and their presumed impact on cytolinker functions. BioEssays News Rev. Mol. Cell. Dev. Biol. 23, 1064–1069
8. Beck, M., Schmidt, A., Malmstroem, J., Claassen, M., Ori, A., Szymborska, A., Herzog, F., Rinner, O., Ellenberg, J., and Aebersold, R. (2011) The quantitative proteome of a human cell line. Mol. Syst. Biol. 7, 549
9. Weisser, M., and Ban, N. (2019) Extensions, extra factors, and extreme complexity: Ribosomal structures provide insights into eukaryotic translation. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 11, a032367
10. Liljas, A., and Sanyal, S. (2018) The enigmatic ribosomal stalk. Q. Rev. Biophys. 51, e12
11. Khan, K., Baleanu-Gogonea, C., Willard, B., Gogonea, V., and Fox, P. L. (2020) 3-Dimensional architecture of the human multi-tRNA synthetase complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 48, 8740–8754