Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

Escherichia coli Bacterium, 2021

Acknowledgement: Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank. doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-028

This painting shows a cross-section through an Escherichia coli cell. The characteristic two-membrane cell wall of gram-negative bacteria is shown in green, with many lipopolysaccharide chains extending from the surface and a network of cross-linked peptidoglycan strands between the membranes. The genome of the cell forms a loosely-defined "nucleoid", shown here in yellow, and interacts with many DNA-binding proteins, shown in tan and orange. Large soluble molecules, such as ribosomes (colored in reddish purple), mostly occupy the space around the nucleoid.

This painting is an update of an earlier E. coli painting from 1999, incorporating abundant new data that has been gathered since then, including proteomics information and many amazing new structures. A few notable molecular systems are highlighted here. A pdf document is available for download with a detailed key of the molecules that are depicted in the illustration and information on scientific sources for the structures.

A. Lipoprotein, the most abundant protein in the cell, and OmpA. Two structural proteins that connect the outer membrane and the peptidoglycan network.
B. A complex of proteins that synthesize the peptidoglycan network, including penicillin-binding proteins that are the target of penicillin.
C. The Lpt system that transports lipopolysaccharides from the inner membrane (where they are synthesized) to the outer membrane.
D. The Bam system that chaperones the folding of outer membrane proteins.
E. Flagellum and flagellar motor.
F. ATP synthase.
G. Fimbria and fimbrial usher. One subunit is being transported to the usher by a chaperone.
H. Secretory translocon, being assisted by chaperones.
I. AcrAB/TolC multi-drug efflux pump.
J. Degradosome, a complex of proteins for degrading obsolete RNA.
K. Cascade and CRISPR.
L. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
M. Expressome. The flexible arms on the ribosome are L12 subunits, which help coordinate the binding of tRNA and elongation factors.
N. Two sRNA with their associated proteins.
O. Replisome including several DNA polymerases and single-strand DNA-binding proteins protecting the single-stranded intermediates formed during the process of DNA replication.